perceptual schemata based on experience, and interaction with the social contextunderstanding that any interaction. He suggests that, to move around gracefully within the culture, one should: practice reciprocity in whatever terms are appropriate for that culture; be tolerant of ambiguity; this includes being adaptable and flexible; have personal determination and faith in oneself to help alleviate culture shock. One also must consider the limitations of participating in activities that are dangerous or illegal. The second type, focused observation, emphasizes observation supported by interviews, in which the participants' insights guide the researcher's decisions about what to observe. The lesson here is that, while much information can be taken in through hearing conversations, without the body language, meanings can be misconstrued. Urbana: University of Illinois Press. Breuer, Franz Roth, Wolff-Michael (2003, May). Steward (1955, as cited in kutsche, 1998 a student of kroeber (1939, as cited in kutsche, 1998 who wrote about Native American adaptations to North American environments, developed a theory called "multilinear evolution" in which he described how cultural traditions evolve related to specific environments. One should take note of what he/she is observing, what is being put into the field notes and in how much detail, and what one is noting about the researcher's personal experience in conducting the research. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social research On-line Journal, 4(2 Art.28. In this stance, the researcher is an observer who is not a member of the group and who is interested in participating as a means for conducting better observation and, hence, generating more complete understanding of the group's activities.
New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. It also involves taking field notes of observations and interpretations.
Listen carefully to conversations, trying to remember as many verbatim conversations, nonverbal expressions, and gestures as possible. 52 merriam (1998) adds that the researcher should: pay attention, shifting from a "wide" to a "narrow" angle perspective, focusing on a single person, activity, interaction, then returning to a view of the overall situation; look for key words in conversations to trigger later recollection. They suggest using a nested sampling frame to determine differences in knowledge about a topic. 58 kutsche refers to ritual as being the symbolic representation of the sentiments in a situation, where the situation involves person, place, time, thesis theme seo setup conception, thing, or occasion. He adds that goodenough describes a fifth level, in which ethnological theory is developed from separate models of separate cultures. Chicago: Science Research Associates. They are instructed to number the photographs and take notes as they take pictures to help them keep the photos organized in the right sequence.